A Study of the New Covenant in Jeremiah 31:31-37
"Behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah." Jeremiah 31:31
The New Covenant in Jeremiah 31:31-37
1. The New Covenant is future. In the opening lines of this paragraph, Yahweh, through the prophet Jeremiah, announces a New Covenant which He will establish with the house of Israel and the house of Judah. (Jer. 31:31)
2. The New Covenant is with the Nation of Israel. This New Covenant God would establish would be with the entire nation of Israel. Whatever use the New Testament makes of the New Covenant, it is indisputable that, at its very foundation, it is a covenant that God made, first and foremost, with the Nation of Israel. (Jer. 31:31, 36, 37)
3. The New Covenant is fundamentally different than the Old Covenant. (Jer. 31:32)
a. This has to do with the fact that the Old Covenant was one which the Nation of Israel did not, indeed could not keep, despite God's tender care of the nation.
b. The New Covenant is unconditional, depending on God to bring about the terms of its fulfillment.
4. In the New Covenant, God unilaterally guarantees He will successfully instill a change of heart within the Israeli people. (Jer. 31:33)
a. He will place His law within them.
b. He will write His law on their hearts.
c. He will be their God.
d. They will be His people.
5. Because of the New Covenant, the change with the hearts of Israeli people will be universal. (Jer. 31:34)
a. They will not each have to teach his brother or neighbor to know the LORD.
b. Because all will know Him – from the least of them to the greatest.
c. God will forgive their iniquity; and He will no longer rember their sin.
6. As expressed in the New Covenant, God's commitment to Israel is eternal and immutable. (Jer. 31:35-37)
a. God ordained the sun for light by day and the moon and stars for light by night. He governs the waves of the sea. His name is Yahweh of Troops. (Jer. 31:35)
b. If this fixed order ever ceases to be, then the seed of Israel will cease to be a nation before Him for all the days. (Jer. 31:36)
c. If the heavens above can be measured; if the foundations of the earth can be discovered, then Yahweh will cast off the seed of Israel for all that they have done, declares Yahweh. (Jer. 31:37)