The Wailing (Western) Wall, Jerusalem, Israel
The Glory of Israel in the Millennium
and Throughout Eternity
The Theme of Isaiah
is Salvation." The first half of the prophecy is
"Condemnation: God's Judgment Against the Nations" (Isa. 1-39). The
second half is "Exaltation: God's Great Salvation Through His Anointed
Servant" (Isa. 40-66). The second half is sub-divided into three
sections: 1. The Greatness of God (Isa. 40-48). 2. The Salvation
of the Servant (Christ) (Isa. 49-59). 3. The Glory of the Kingdom
This third section (Isa. 60-66) deals extensively with the Glory
inherent in Christ's Thousand-Year
Reign upon Earth from Jerusalem, Israel
(Rev. 20:1-6 and scores of OT prophecies, including Isa. 60-66). Here
and there the prophecy laps over into elements of the Eternal
Kingdom of God and Christ headquartered in New
Jerusalem, the Capital City of New Earth,
described in some detail in Rev. 21:1-22:5.
This third section (Isa. 60-66) begins (Isaiah 60:1-22) with a thunderous affirmation of God's
glorious future for the nation of Israel
and its capital city Jerusalem. Tragically the Church at
routinely interpreted this passage (and others like it) in a non-literal
fashion. Doing so bankrupts this majestic chapter of the audience and
purpose for which the prophet Isaiah wrote it. This second half of his
prophecy Isaiah wrote at the behest of God to comfort the nation of Israel
(Isa. 40:1-2). Illustrative of this non-literal
interpretation is the Roman
Catholic Church, which in a footnote
referring to Isa. 60:1-6 affirms the following: "The Church makes
use of these verses for the first reading of the Mass
on the feast of Epiphany, for she sees in them symbols of her
universality." This is more than unfortunate, for Isaiah did not write
this about the Church at
all, but about the nation of Israel in
her future restored and glorious kingdom.
Let us examine in some detail this glorious prophecy of Isaiah 60:1-22.
And let us revel in the glory God has in store for his restored
favorite nation, Israel,
and let us allow God to be credible in keeping His promises and
covenants with Israel just the way He said He would!
glorious, God-given light of righteousness as it will exist in
It will draw all nations to her. Isa.
is urged to revel in
the dawn of the light of God’s glory. Isa. 60:1
- "Arise, shine; for your light has come" (Isa. 60:1). In
Isa. 59:9 the prophet lamented the presence of gloom and darkness
among the spiritually and morally depraved people of Israel.
coming, at the return of the Messiah
and His establishment of His
Kingdom, that righteousness and light and glory and joy will return to
the nation. In Isa. 60:1, the prophet turns the attention of the nation
to that time. That righteousness and glory of which he speaks is
dependent on the new
has made with His people to redeem them, forgive
them and place within them His Spirit
and His words (Isa. 59:20-21;
Jer. 31:31-34; Rom. 11:25-27).
- "And the glory of the LORD has risen upon you." God, in the
Person of Jesus, will be physically present in Jerusalem, accepting
worship, proclaiming truth, and judging between nations (Isa. 2:3-4).
His glory, the glory of God-come-in-human-flesh, will manifest itself
in light that will be visible anywhere in the city (Ezek. 43:1-7; 44:4;
Zech. 2:4-5; Haggai 2:7-9). How much more profoundly will this glory
radiate in and from the Eternal
City (Rev. 21:10-11, 23-24; 22:5)!
The dark gloom of the nations
will be contrasted with the glory of Israel.
B. Believing Jews will be
restored to Israel
with wealth and glory during the Millennium
God's honor. Isa. 60:4-9
- "For behold, darkness will cover the earth" (Isa. 60:2). In
59:9 Isaiah had lamented, “Therefore justice is far from us, And
righteousness does not overtake us; We hope for light, but behold,
darkness, For brightness, but we walk in gloom.” This pervasive
spiritual and moral darkness afflicts the entire earth. And it will so
even more as the whole world apostatizes during the Tribulation
(2 Thess. 2:3-12).
- "Deep darkness the people" (Isa. 60:2). In an eschatological
(last times) sense, “deep darkness,” I believe,
refers to the Tribulation
period marked by moral and governmental
darkness as well as catastrophic events that plague and kill those who
dwell upon the earth.
light will be a
magnet to the Gentiles.
- "But the LORD will rise upon you and His glory will appear upon you" (Isa. 60:2). Just as the
glory of God and of the Lamb
will illuminate the city of New
Jerusalem throughout eternity
21:10-11, 23), so the glory of the returned Messiah
will illuminate the
present city of Jerusalem during the Millennial
Kingdom (Ezek. 43:1-4).
- "Nations will come to your light" (Isa. 60:3). Just as the
nations living on New
Earth will walk (live and work) by the light of New
21:24), and, drawn by the glorious light of that city, will bring their
produce and their manufactured goods into it during the Eternal
(Rev. 21:26), so during the Millennium,
earth’s nations will be
magnetized by the light and the glory emanating from King Jesus and
illuminating the city. They will be attracted to the light of Millennial
Jerusalem just as, in the summertime, insects are attracted
to a light glowing in the darkness.
- "And kings to the brightness of your rising" (Isa. 60:3).
Kings reigning in various
countries throughout Millennial
earth will be magnetically drawn to the
brightness and glory of Millennial
Jerusalem, illuminated by her King.
Just so, kings living upon New Earth
will be drawn to the glory and
brilliance of New
Jerusalem, also illuminated by the same King during
Kingdom. They will bring their glory – their treasures,
commodities, and manufactured goods – into New
Jerusalem for the
benefit of the citizens of the Capital City (Rev. 21:24, 26).
will rejoice at the
return of her expatriates. Isa. 60:4
C. Earth's Nations will serve Israel
during the Millennium
and throughout Eternity.
- "They all gather together, they come to you" (Isa. 60:4).
Jewish people from all over
the globe will return to Jerusalem and Israel
when the King returns.
The Jewish diaspora
have been scattered all over the earth, but they
will return to their homeland. Jesus the King will “assemble the
outcasts of Israel,
and gather the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the
earth” (Isa. 11:12).
will revel in her
prosperity. Isa. 60:5
- "Your sons will come from afar, and your daughters will be
carried in the arms" (Isa. 60:4). This echoes the words of Isa. 49:22:
“Thus says the Lord GOD, ‘Behold, I will lift up My hand to the nations
And set up My standard to the peoples; And they will bring your sons in
their bosom, And your daughters will be carried on their shoulders.’”
Not only will Jewish sons and daughters return, but the nations of the
earth will assist them in their return to their homeland.
- "Then you will see and be radiant" (Isa. 60:5). "Radiant" -
is rarely used in the O.T. It continues the
theme of light, however. Two similar uses are found in Psa. 34:5 and
Jer. 31:12. It almost seems that the faces of Israelis
will radiate and
reflect the glory of the King to others.
- "And your heart will thrill and rejoice" (Isa. 60:5). The verb translated "thrill" is the Qal Perfect of pâchád (6342),
"to fear, dread," rarely, "to be in awe." It usually has a negative
connnotation, but in this context a positive one. The verb translated "rejoice" is the Qal Perfect of râcháb (7337), which means "to be, or grow, wide, large" (BDB). Combining these two verbs, the sense is that Israelis will be
overcome with emotion at what God is doing on their behalf.The Millennial
Kingdom will be a time of great emotion for Israel.
- "Because the abundance of the sea will be turned to you"
(Isa. 60:5). This must at least mean
will have an abundant commercial trade in fishing,
presumably from the Mediterranean, but also, specifically, from the
Dead Sea. A life-giving stream of water will flow from underneath the Millennial
Temple, and eventually find its way into the Jordan and into
the Dead Sea. This life-giving river will nourish fruit trees that
produce every month. The Dead Sea will no longer be dead. It will
provide fresh-water habitat for “very many fish.” The fish “will be
according to their kinds, like the fish of the Great Sea, very many”
In Zechariah 14:8 we are told, “And in that day
living waters will
flow out of Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea and the
other half toward the western sea; it will be in summer as well as in
winter.” Whatever life-giving benefits accrue in the Dead (eastern) Sea
surely will also apply to the Mediterranean (western) Sea as well. The
water flowing from the Millennial
Temple will flow both in the dry
season and the rainy season. Israel
will have enough fish to supply its
own domestic population and enough to have a booming trade with other
It is possible also that Israel
will be able to mine
treasures from the sea. Israel’s
wealth and productivity will be
mind-boggling in that day.
3. Arabs will participate in
the worship of Yahweh in
- "The wealth of the nations will come to you" (Isa. 60:5). The world's economy will boom, and Israel will be the greatest beneficiary. Israel will enjoy "most favored nation" status with all the other economies of the world. There will be no boycotts of Israel. Today's growing BDS (Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions) movement against Israel will be non-existent. Instead, nations will find it economically profitable to trade with Israel, invest in Israel and even donate funds and resources to Israel! Politicians like Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar who support BDS
will be non-existent, for advocating that policy would be political
suicide for them. There will be true justice for all in the Kingdom.
The King will not be deceived by appearances or by one-sided reports, for
He will be omniscient, and will delight in the fear of the LORD (Isa.
11:3). He will judge the poor with righteousness, and decide in favor
of the afflicted with fairness (Isa. 11:4). He will destroy the wicked
by verbal command (Isa. 11:4). He will govern with righteousness,
faithfulness, and truth (Isa. 11:5).
Arab wealth for the purpose of
worship will be transported by camels to Jerusalem. Isa. 60:6
- "A multitude of camels will cover you" (Isa. 60:6). It is
not to be assumed that Israel
will own these camels, but that the foreigners listed here will
be magnetized by the glory of Israel and
will travel there on their
camels, bringing goods and wares by which the Israelis
Many take this wealth of Israel and
the city itself
“Ideal” is code for, “It is not really going to happen. We must
understand this passage metaphorically.” Lest anyone doubt that the
camels are to be taken literally, I personally can testify that, even
in the 21st Century, desert-dwelling Arabs and other Middle-Eastern
peoples place a premium on camels. I have seen camels for sale in the
city of Doha, Qatar, for example.
“Isaiah saw camels as thick as flies on meat
covering the land
around Jerusalem. These Gentiles
will express thanks that Israel has
brought the Word of God to them, in its written, spoken, and incarnate
forms.” (Thomas Constable, Notes
- "Midian" (Isa. 60:6): Midian refers to a desert area of the
western Arabian peninsula on the east side
of the Gulf of Aqaba bordering the Gulf, although it may have
overlapped on the west side of the Gulf also. Midian lay south of
(part of modern-day Jordan).
The implications are staggering in view of today’s
religio-geo-politics – people will be coming from almost exclusively
Muslim lands – Saudi Arabia and Yemen – to transport items for worship
in Jerusalem. They will facilitate the worship of King Jesus, and there
will be no competition from Islam, and no more suicide bombings,
shellings, or rocket attacks. This
is unbelievable in today’s religious/political climate. But it will
has said, “I, the LORD, will hasten it in its time”
- "Ephah" (Isa. 60:6): Ephah is perhaps another
name for Midian. Gary V. Smith (Isaiah
“Ephah was the son of Midian (Gen 25:4), so these two groups probably
- "Sheba" (Isa. 60:6). Sheba is the area at
the southwestern most corner of the Arabian
Peninsula. It is bordered by the Red Sea on the west and the Gulf of
Aden on the south. The relatively narrow body of water connecting the
Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden is known as the Straits of Bab-al-Mandab
(“Gate of Grief”). These straits were the site of attempted Somali
piracy as recently as 2010. Today Sheba would include at least the
western half of modern-day Yemen. The Queen of Sheba came to visit
Solomon (1 Kings 10:1-10; 2 Chron. 9:1-9), bringing with her a great
amount of spices and precious stones as gifts to the Israeli
- "They will bring gold and frankincense" (Isa. 60:6). Since
these camels will “bear good news of the
praises of the LORD,” it is to be understood that the gold may well be
used in the construction of the Millennial
Temple (Ezek. 40-46), and
the frankincense will be used in preparing incense for worship. (So
Gary V. Smith, Isaiah
- "And will bear good news of the praises of the LORD" (Isa.
60:6). Undoubtedly this
refers to the cargoes carried by the camels. One way or another, the
goods that the camels transport will be used in the temple worship. But
this is not all, I believe, that this passage is telling us. Those who
ride and lead these camels will gratefully participate in the worship
of the God of Israel.
This is all the more astounding when we
acknowledge that these drivers will be coming from countries which
presently despise Israel and
even wish to dispossess her of her land
and push her into the sea. But these camel drivers and their owners and
their countries will no longer swear allegiance to Allah and Muhammed,
but to Yahweh,
the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to
Jesus of Nazareth, King of Israel and
King of the World!
Arabs will make contributions
toward the worship of Yahweh in
Jerusalem. Isa. 60:7
4. Maritime (Western) nations
will cooperate in returning expatriates
back to Israel.
- "Kedar" (Isa. 60:7). Kedar is evidently
Arabia. According to Gary V.
Smith (Isaiah 40-66, 617) Kedar is the
northern Arabian Desert.
- "Nebaioth" (Isa. 60:7). This city/region is apparently to
be identified with
Sela, just north of Bozrah. Both are south of the Dead Sea. Nebaioth
may be connected with Nabatea, in the region once inhabited by Esau
(Edom, in modern day Jordan). Bozrah
is connected with Edom (modern day Jordan) in Isa. 63:1. In his
encyclopedia article on Nebaioth,
A. S. Fulton alleges that "'the rams of Nebaioth' are to serve the
ideal Zion as sacrificial victims." I couldn't disagree more. By "ideal
Zion" Fulton meant that Zion is merely a metaphor and that these
sacrifices in this city will never actually occur. Isaiah meant his
readers to understand his prophecy literally, and we do Isaiah and God
a great disservice by not believing this Scripture.
- "They will go up with acceptance on My altar" (Isa. 60:7).
This is Yahweh
speaking. He asserts that at a future glorious time in
the glorious Kingdom of Israel,
there will exist a temple
with an altar. Ezekiel described this Temple
in the glorious Kingdom in great detail (Ezek. 40:1-47:12). We call
this Kingdom the Millennial
for we are told six times in Rev. 20:1-7 that the Kingdom will last a
thousand years.This statement of God about "My altar" recorded by
Isaiah means, of course, that there will be animal
sacrifices in the Millennium.
There are many who use this post-Calvary
animal sacrifice as grounds for dismissing the literal reading of the
text. But it is better to adjust our theology to the text than to
adjust the text to fit our theology. How can there be animal sacrifices
after Christ has completed His once-for-all sacrifice for sin (Heb.
7:27; 9:11-12, 28; 10:12-14)? I
believe the answer is fairly simple. These Millennial
not efficacious, but memorial. And I believe there is a New Testament
example – the Church’s
observing of the Lord’s
Table. The bread and the
wine are memorials for the Church,
not efficacious. That is, contrary
the teachings of Roman
Catholicism and certain mainline Protestant
denominations, the Church’s
two ordinances are memorial in nature, not
efficacious. They illustrate grace; they do not grant grace. The same
is to be said for the sacrifices in the Millennium.
They illustrate the
gracious sacrifice of Jesus. They do not grant grace.
The presence of a temple
helps us to understand that Isaiah here is
describing conditions in the Millennial
Kingdom, not the Eternal
Kingdom. In New
Jerusalem, as opposed to Millennial
will be no temple whatever. God and the Lamb are the temple (Rev.
- "And I shall glorify My glorious house" (Isa. 60:17). This
is a reference to the Millennial
described in great detail in Ezekiel 40:1-46:24. There are,
great many scholars who refuse to take this temple literally. One
example is C. J. H. Wright in his commentary, The
Message of Ezekiel,
p. 338. Here are his comments on Ezekiel’s vision of the temple:
words, the purpose of Ezekiel’s vision was not to provide
guidance as to how the temple was to be rebuilt, but to provide
reassurance of the hope that it would be rebuilt, and to point beyond
the physical temple to the restored relationship between God in his
holiness and his humble and obedient people.
But there is no reason given either in this text (Isaiah 60:7) or in
the Ezekiel text (Ezek. 40-46), that anything in either passage is to
be taken metaphorically and not literally. What is the point here in
Isaiah of talking about the camels from different Arab countries who
will bring goods for temple worship if there will be no temple? What is
the point of talking about the rams of Nebaioth being sacrificed on Yahweh’s
altar if there will be no altar? Sadly, men like Wright, I
fear, are driven by a theological and exegetical agenda in their
abhorrence of a literal
interpretation of Scripture.
The expedited travel. Isa. 60:8
b. The participation of coastal,
maritime nations. Isa. 60:9a
- Isaiah uses two metaphors here to describe the rapid
transit of Gentile
ships in transporting expatriate Israelis
back to to
their homeland. The first metaphor is that of wind-driven clouds
scudding across the sky. The second metaphor is that of doves returning
rapidly in flight to their dove-cotes. Isaiah asks, "Who are these who
fly ....?" He will answer the question in the next verse.
c. The objectives of the
Maritime nations. Isa. 60:9b
- He answers the question in the previous verse by quoting
God as saying, "Surely the coastlands will wait for Me." In other
words, nations from afar who border the sea will be believers in Yahweh,
seeking to perform his bidding, stated in Isa. 60:9b.
- Moreover, ships from Spain will be in the vanguard,
carrying precious human Israeli
cargo back to their homeland in Israel.
Where is Tarshish?
It is most likely a city on the Southwestern coast of Spain, west of
the Straits of Gibraltar. Tarshish apparently had large, fast ships
(Gary V. Smith, Isaiah
40-66, 617). Observe that Tarshish is mentioned in the same context
in Psalm 72:10.
(1) To return Israeli
sons to Israel
from distant places.
(2) To transport the expatriates’ wealth, defined as "silver and gold."
(3) To honor the name of Yahweh
God of Israel
(4) To acknowledge Yahweh’s
glorification of Israel
will assist Israel.
D. The wealthy, glorious,
international supremacy of Israel
during the Millennium
and overlap into Eternity.
Foreigners will reinforce the
defense infrastructure of Jerusalem and other Israeli
2. The city of Jerusalem will be
accessible. Isa. 60:11-12
literally, "sons of foreigners" will build up, reinforce, and repair
your walls. In ancient times, walls were built as defense
fortifications. That will not be the case during the Millennium
foreign nations will not dare risk the wrath of Jesus, the Great King
(Psa. 2:12). The idea probably is that broken walls are a bad
advertisement for a city. Cities with spruced up and reinforced and
repaired walls testify to the wealth and well-being and orderliness of
that city. That
these walls are not actually being repaired for the purpose of defense
is illustrated by the assertion that "Your gates will be open
continually" and not "closed day or night" (Isa. 60:11).
kings will serve Israel.
Today rulers from the nations around the world despise Israel
Many of the earth's nations have taken an aggressively
anti-Jewish stance and have imprisoned, tortured, and killed Israelis
Russia, Germany, Iran, and many Arab nations come to mind. Today, the
United Nations is vociferously anti-Israel
that day is coming to an end. In Christ's Millennial
, the earth's kings will serve Israel
What an about-face!
c. God's past and present Divine
- Past Prerogative –
Wrathful Discipline. God's past treatment of Israel
vantage point of the Millennial
Kingdom) will have been wrathful
discipline (Isa. 60:10). That is why Israel has
been treated with contempt for
generations. This contemptible treatment has been God's Divine
Discipline against a disobedient people who ultimately killed their own
King, Jesus, the Messiah.
- Present Prerogative –
Compassion and Favor. But in the Millennial
will have repented of her grievous sins (Isa.
59:20-21; Zech. 12:10-13:1) and God's New Covenant with Israel
in effect (Jer. 31:31-34). And God will treat Israel
with favor and
compassion (Isa. 60:10)l
The policy of continually-open
gates. Isa. 60:11a.
b. The reason for open access.
- During the Millennium,
Jerusalem's gates will be open 24 hours a day. In Hebraistic poetic
style, Isaiah adds, "her gates will not be closed by day or by night." This shows a
city at peace with no enemy nations anywhere threatening to invade her.
- Isaiah has already told us that, “in the last days,” people
nations all over the world will swarm to Mount Zion in Jerusalem and
the house of the God of Jacob. They will want
the King to teach them His laws so they can walk in His paths (Isa.
2:2-3). And we
learned that the nations will “hammer their swords into plowshares and
their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against
nation, and never again will they learn war” (Isa. 2:4). Since there
is no military threat nor animosity toward Israel
during the Millennial
there will be no threat of sabotage or terrorism. Jerusalem’s gates
will be open around the clock, not closed during the daytime or the
- But the Apostle John
picks up the same theme of open gates and applies it supremely to New
Jerusalem (Rev. 21:25). Certainly in New
Jerusalem there will be no threat whatsoever from any nations or
kings, for all inhabitants of New
Jerusalem and New Earth
will be righteous people (Rev. 22:14-15). It will be more than safe for
Jerusalem's citizens to leave its massive twelve gates (Rev.
21:12-13) open around the clock.
To transfer wealth from the
nations to Israel.
(2) To display symbols of
conquest and subservience.
- Surprisingly enough, the reason given for the
continually open gates here is not a security issue at all, but rather
a commercial issue. Leaving the gates open around the clock permits
representatives from all earth’s nations continually to bring goods and
services into the city. This will be a “round-the-clock” operation!
This feature serves to illustrate the tremendous wealth that will
accrue to Jerusalem and to Israel
during this Golden Age!
- This same idea is picked up again in the New
gates will never be closed in New
Jerusalem “and they will bring the glory
and the honor of the nations into it” (Rev. 21:25-26). A careful
reading of Revelation 21:1-22:5 helps us realize that our future as
glorified believers of the Church
does not reside in heaven, but in New
Jerusalem. But there will be a great many of New Earth’s
redeemed nations who do
not live in the city, but rather upon New Earth.
They are the ones who
will bring goods and services into the gigantic, brilliant, and holy
Jerusalem, capital city of Israel and
home of the Church.
- Isa. 60:11 ends with the clause, "With their kings led in
procession." In ancient times, conquering rulers led conquered kings in a triumphant victory procession through the streets of
the capitol of the victorious nation. That is the idea here, though I
suspect the terms of the victory procession are amicable here, not
insulting. There will be a great number of nations gathered around
Jerusalem to subjugate Israel
abjectly and annihilate as many Israelis
as possible at the close of the Tribulation period (Zech. 12:1-5). But
the LORD will utterly destroy the enemy nations who have fought against
(Zech. 12:6-9; 14:1-5, 12-15). At the start of the Millennium,
only genuine worshipers of Yahweh and
will be left to
populate the Millennial
Earth (Matt. 25:31-46). Rulers from formerly anti-Israel
states will willingly come to
Jerusalem, gladly showing their allegiance to the new King of the Earth
(Isa. 2:1-3; Zech. 14:9, 16-19).
The necessity of international
cooperation. Isa. 60:12
3. Lebanon will participate in
the beautification of Jerusalem. Isa.
Non-serving nations will be
(2) Uncooperative nations will
- There is no hint here (in Isa. 60:12) as to how
non-cooperative nations will be
punished. But there is a hint in Zechariah 14:1-21. There we learn that
nations who survive the battles at the close of the Tribulation
come up year by year to worship the King, Yahweh of
Troops, and to
the Feast of Booths. Nations who do not come up to worship the King
will receive no rain (Zech. 14:16-19). If the Millennial
merely a metaphor, this provision makes absolutely no sense. One year’s
experience of total drought will compel a nation to come worship the
King next year!
- Both the first and second members of these parallel
statements in the Hebrew text reveal that parts of Isaiah 60:1-22 can
only apply to the Millennium
and not to the conditions in New Jerusalem and upon New Earth. The
earth at the beginning of the Millennium
will be populated by people who have survived the Tribulation,
but who are willingly subservient to Messiah
Jesus. These will be men
and women living under utopian conditions in their natural bodies. And
they will be joyful, loyal followers of Jesus. However, they will have
children. Tragically, Scripture reveals that many of these children,
though outwardly submissive to the King, are inwardly not genuine
believers in Him. As time goes on during the Millennium,
these unbelievers may put up mild resistance to the King's policies.
One of the policies that will draw the ire of some is the mandatory
appearance in Jerusalem at the Feast of Booths (Zech. 14:16). They will
not feel like attending, and according to Zech. 14:16-19, they will
receive no rain the following year. They will reluctantly attend the
following year, no doubt! This simply illustrates the fact that at the
close of the Millennium,
when Satan is released from the Abyss, he will find on earth a great
many sympathetic ears to deceive into revolting against the great King
(Rev. 20:7-9a). And this will end in their tragic, fiery demise (Rev.
Lebanon's glory will come to
former enemies will
be subservient to her. Isa. 60:14.
This glory will consist of various trees from Lebanon. The NASB
mentions by name the juniper, the box tree, and the cypress. "Juniper" (berowsh
is more frequently translated as cypress, but also as fir. "Box tree" (tidhar
is seldom used and probably refers to a hardwood, perhaps elm or box
tree. Some believe it is a species of
cedar growing in Lebanon
. "Cypress" (teashshur
is also seldom used. It is perhaps a cypress or cedar. BDB
identifies it as "box tree," a small evergreen tree. Isaiah sees these
trees as indigenous to Lebanon and well-suited to bring glory to Millennial
b. The purpose of the trees will
be to glorify the Millennial
the place where King Jesus will hold court and accept worship. "I shall
make the place of my feet glorious!" "The place of My sanctuary": Once
again there is firm evidence of a Millennial
complete with animal sacrifices (see Isa. 60:7; Ezek. 40:1-46:24). This
cannot possibly refer metaphorically to “the restored relationship
between God in his holiness and his humble and obedient people”
Message of Ezekiel
, p. 338), for in New
in the eternal
there will be no temple whatever (Rev. 21:23). Moreover,
there will be no animal sacrifices in New
, for there will be no death (Rev. 21:1-4).
The change of posture
- "The sons of those who afflicted you": In the last 75-100
years, a great many nations have afflicted Israel.
Among them are
Germany, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Palestinian
Arabs, and even Britain, which, by its actions, gave support to Arabs
even as it ended the British
Mandate of Palestine on May 15, 1948. But as the Great
nears the end, all nations from around the world will invade Israel and
occupy Jerusalem in a Satanically-motivated effort to implement a
"Final Solution" to the Jewish problem (Zech. 12:3; Dan. 9:27; Matt.
24:15; 2 Thess. 2:3). During and after Christ's return, all enemies of Israel,
who are also enemies of God and of Christ, will be destroyed
(Rev. 19:11-21; Matt. 25:41-46).
- "will come bowing to you": But all over the world, from
enemies, there will be a significant number of people
who recognize and accept Jesus as God's Anointed King (Matt. 25:31-40).
These will come and bow deferentially to Israelis,
as the chosen of God.
b. They will call Jerusalem "The
City of Yahweh!"
- "And all those who despised you will bow themselves at the
soles of your feet": We who live in America are somewhat familiar with
the protocol involved in bowing in Japan. The lower the bow, the
greater the deference. The bowing described here is the ultimate
bowing. One cannot demonstrate greater subservience than by prostrating
himself at the soles of another’s feet! Indeed, in the Arab world of
the Middle East, it is
impolite for a man to cross his legs in public because that exposes the
sole of his foot to his neighbor, who stands to be greatly offended. So
when an Arab reporter threw his shoes at President George Bush, that
was a huge insult! Israel is
the most despised nation in the world. But
in the Kingdom, those who formerly despised Israel
themselves at the soles of Israeli
feet. How remarkable!
c. They will acknowledge that
Zion belongs to the Holy One of Israel!
- Great pressure has been placed upon Israel to
give up its
Jerusalem as its capital city and to cede it to so-called
"Palestinians" who have no historical claim whatever to the city as the
capital of an Arab country. The United Nations and even U. S.
increasingly applied pressure on Israel to
allow the Arabs to claim
Jerusalem in some way as the capital of a "Palestinian" state. To his
credit, President Donald Trump has moved the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem,
the rightful capital of Israel.
Since the days of King David, Jerusalem
has been the capital city of Israel,
and of no other country. That is because Jerusalem is the city
It is not the “Palestinians’” to commandeer or the United
Nations’ to award or the United States’ to bully. It is the city of Yahweh.
And so it shall ever be. Beginning in the Millennium,
will be known as the City of Yahweh.
That will be true also in the
- Literally, the last two phrases read, “And they shall call
you “City of Yahweh,”
of Holy (One) of Israel.”
Calling someone a “Zionist” is
almost the worst possible epithet in some quarters. But those who abhor
Zionism neither know the Scriptures nor abide by them, at least in this
is God’s city, and it is His choice of a city. It is His
city for eternity.
God, is, in fact, the world’s greatest Zionist. For
a further study of this matter, see “Is
God a Zionist?”
- For the lexical data, see tsîyōn
There will be a reversal of
past animosity! Isa. 60:15
- Past attitudes toward Israel:
“Whereas you have been forsaken and hated with no one
- The Land under the Mamluks became a backwater province
Damascus. Acre, Jaffa, and other ports were destroyed for fear of new
crusades, and maritime as well as overland commerce was interrupted. By
the end of the Middle Ages, the country's towns were virtually in
ruins, most of Jerusalem was abandoned, and the small Jewish community
- Again, under Ottoman
Rule from 1517-1917 we read the following:
- With a gradual decline in the quality of Ottoman rule,
suffered widespread neglect. By the end of the 18th century, much of
the Land was owned by absentee landlords and leased to impoverished
tenant farmers, and taxation was as crippling as it was capricious. The
great forests of Galilee and the Carmel mountain range were denuded of
trees; swamp and desert encroached on agricultural land.
- Future attitudes toward Israel
during the Theocratic
will benefit from
international nurture because of Yahweh's
salvation! Isa. 60:16
- "I will make you an everlasting pride" (Isa. 60:15):
as a nation, and Jerusalem as its capital is almost
universally despised, even among many who call themselves Christians,
that animosity must and will change. Jerusalem and Israel
will be a
source of everlasting pride, not only for Israelis,
but for all
followers of the great King!
will be protected
and nurtured by nations and kings.
“You will also suck the milk of nations and suck the breast of kings":
To western ears
this turn of phrase seems rather crude, and even embarrassing.
But to Middle Eastern ears it made perfect sense and was not
embarrassing. It means that in the Millennial
will be protected and
nurtured by nations and kings. Thomas
Constable writes, “It is easy for
us to see how Gentile
nations will sustain Israel in
because ever since 1948, certain Gentile
nations have sustained the
modern state of Israel.”
will bless Israel
during the Millennial
Age. Isa. 60:17
will know Yahweh
her Savior and Redeemer. A great purpose of God’s elevating of Israel to
the status of
“Most-Favored-Nation” is that Israel
will finally come to know that Yahweh is
her Savior and Redeemer. It is God’s will that all of His
people humbly acknowledge His greatness and kindness. People who do not
do that are among the most arrogant and dysfunctional of mankind.
His material blessing:
will preserve Israel
from war and terrorism. Isa. 60:18
"Instead of bronze I will bring gold": In
each case an inferior substance is replaced by a superior one. This
simply illustrates the honored and blessed condition of Israel
in the Millennial
age. It is the fulfillment of God’s promise to Israel
clear back in Deuteronomy 27:1-26 and Deut. 28:1-68. If Israel
God, she would be
blessed in every way. But if she disobeyed God, she would be cursed in
every way. God guarantees Israel’s
obedience through the New
and so He guarantees her blessings. The Church
not replaced Israel
greatest days are ahead. And when Israel
right with God, Gentiles
will be right with God. And both Israel
the nations will
experience the untold blessings that accrue with obedience.
b. His spiritual blessing:
"And I will make peace your administrators and righteousness your
overseers": The city of Jerusalem, the State of Israel
and the entire
be filled with peace because there will be universal righteousness. If
righteousness is lacking, there can be no peace. The initial
fulfillment of this promise will take place during the Millennial
. But the ultimate
fulfillment of this prophecy will take place in New
and upon New
. “But for the cowardly and unbelieving and abominable and
murderers and immoral persons and sorcerers and idolaters and all
liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and
, which is the second death
” (Rev. 21:8). None of them will be
permitted on New Earth
or in New
There will be an absence of war and destruction.
5. There will be an eternal
glory of Israel
that will emanate from Israel's
God. Isa. 60:19-20
- There will be no invasion of the land of Israel.
will not be heard again in your land,"
b. The symbols of safety and
- There will be no terrorism within Israel's
devastation or destruction within your borders."
- As signified by the name of her walls: "But you will call
your walls 'salvation.'"
- As signified by the name of her gates: "and your gates,
There will be a displacement
of natural light. Isa. 60:19a
- There will be no need of the sun by day.
- There will be no need of the moon by night.
- This passage is not saying that the sun and moon will
cease to exist
during the Millennial
Kingdom. It is saying that for people living in
Jerusalem, and perhaps in Israel,
there will be no need for sun or
moon. The reason is that Yahweh,
meaning Jesus Himself, will be Israel’s
eternal light source, as well as the source of her glory.
condition is repeated in regard to New
Jerusalem and New Earth
21:23, 25; 22:5). Once again, it does not necessarily mean that New
Universe will have no stars or that New Earth
will have no sun or moon. But they will be superfluous. The
light of the great city, coming from the Lamb and from God, is so
bright that people on New Earth
live by its light. It is so penetrating
that inside the city, there will be no need of any artificial lighting
(Rev. 22:5). There will be no such thing as a darkened room inside New
b. There will be a supernatural source of light. Isa. 60:19b
6. The condition of the Jewish
people and the Land of Israel
Kingdom. Isa. 60:21-22
will be her eternal source of light.
c. There will be an eternal
presence of light. Isa. 60:20
God will be the source of her glory.
- God, the source of Israel's
light, will, in contrast to the sun, never set.
- God, the source of Israel's
light, will, in contrast to the moon, never wane.
- Because of that supernatural light, Israel's
time of grief and sorrow has ended.
righteous. Isa. 60:21a
will possess her God-given land forever. Isa. 60:21b
motivation in permanently establishing righteous Israel in
the land of her inheritance:
- At Christ’s return He will gather all Israelis
from all over the world
for judgment. The judgment will take place in the desert of the
nations, somewhere outside the land of Israel. He
will make all Jewish
people to pass under the rod. All rebels will be weeded out and not
allowed to enter the land (Ezek. 20:33-38; Matt. 25:1-30). I presume they will be
destroyed and will
await a final judgment of the wicked at the end of time (Dan. 12:2; Rev.
20:11-15). Those who survive that judgment will have done so because
God had softened their hardened hearts of stone and replaced them with
hearts of flesh (Ezek. 11:17-20; 36:24-28). He had placed His Spirit
within them so that they
wanted to obey and love Him and serve Him. God has guaranteed this
transformation by His New Covenant
(Jer. 31:31-34). Thus will come the time when “all Israel
will be saved” (Rom. 11:26-27; cf. Isa. 59:20-21).
so that Yahweh
might be glorified. Isa.
d. The supernatural preeminence of the Jewish people. Isa. 60:22a
- "The smallest one will become a clan,"
e. The Guarantor and timing of
- "And the least one a mighty nation."
"I the LORD will
hasten it in its time!" Isa. 60:22b
and unbelievers can deny that there is any future for Israel;
politicians can attempt to thwart and redefine Israel’s
terrorists can attempt to destroy Israelis;
nations can attempt to
annihilate her; but no one can stop the inevitable, inexorable
activity of Yahweh.
In His own time, He will elevate Israel to
place of international honor, glory, and supremacy. His own Anointed
One, Jesus of Nazareth, will be eternal King of Israel.
Sovereign march through history and final redemption of the elect of
all nations will ultimately take place.
A future time of great glory exists for the restored nation of Israel
This glory will manifest itself both in the future Millennium
and in the Eternal
and New Earth
God-given light of righteousness in the Millennium
and in Eternity
will draw all nations to her (Isa. 60:1-3). Believing
Jewish people will be restored to Israel
with wealth and glory during
the coming Millennium
This will accrue to the glory of God (Isa. 60:4-9). There will be great
joy as expatriate Israelis
from all over the world return to Jerusalem
and to Israel
with the assistance and blessing of redeemed Gentiles
Arab nations, formerly stout observers of Islam, will joyfully and
voluntarily participate in and contribute to the worship of Yahweh
His glorious Millennial
, which will replace the Dome of the Rock
and the Al Aqsa
(Isa. 60:6-7). Maritime and other Western nations will assist in the
repatriation of exiled Jewish people back to their homeland ((Isa
60:8-9). Earth's nations will serve Israel
both in the Millennium
and throughout Eternity
(Isa. 60:10-14). Foreigners will rebuild the walls of Israeli towns and
cities during the Millennium
kings will serve Israel
(Isa. 60:10). This will be a time
of great peace, and Israel
will have no enemies. The gates of Jerusalem
(and other cities) will be open round the clock (Isa. 60:11).
International commerce will be transacted with Israel
that will greatly
increase the wealth and commercial success of Jerusalem and Israel
Rulers of formerly anti-Israel
nations will participate in parades
through down-town Jerusalem and will signify their subservience to and
cooperation with the nation of Israel
its King, Jesus (Isa. 60:11).
Non-cooperating nations will be destroyed and ruined for they will
receive no rain (Isa. 60:12; Zech. 14:16-19). The forests of Lebanon
will yield trees that will beautify the Temple
in Jerusalem (Isa.
former enemies will serve her and come bowing at the
feet of Israeli officials and, especially, Israel's
great King, Jesus
(Isa. 60:14). They will acknowledge that Jerusalem is not the capital
of the Islamic Palestinians, but it is the favored city, not of Allah
, but of Yahweh
God. They will acknowledge the legitimacy of Zion
(Isa. 60:14). Finally, Israel's
wealthy, glorious international supremacy will endure not only
throughout the Millennium
on this present earth, but will endure throughout eternity
glorious Capital City of New
reigning over New Earth
60:15-22; Rev. 21:1-22:5). There will be a reversal amongst all nations
of past animosity toward Israel
(Isa. 60:15). Israel
will benefit from
international nurture and protection because of Yahweh's
(Isa. 60:16). Yahweh
will bless Israel
during the Millennial
both spiritually and physically (Isa. 60:17). Yahweh
will preserve Israel
from war and terrorism (Isa. 60:18). There will be an eternal
glory of Israel
that will emanate from Israel's
God. This glory will
manifest itself in supernatural light which displaces and outshines the
light of the sun and moon (Isa. 60:19-20). All Israelis
righteous, and they will possess their God-given land of Israel
(Isa. 60:21). Israelis
will be supernaturally preeminent (Isa.60:22).
The Guarantor and Sovereign fulfiller of Israel's
is none other than Yahweh
Himself. "I the LORD will hasten it in its
time!" (Isa. 60:22).
(Scripture quotation taken