Like apples of gold in settings of silver Is a word spoken in right circumstances. Proverbs 25:11

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Earth-Dwellers. Literally, "those who dwell on the earth" as found in the Book of Revelation. This term seems to be a code phrase identifying unbelievers who live upon the earth during the Tribulation. These are people who are not believers in Jesus Christ and, presumably will never become believers. They identify with the Beast who comes out of the Abyss, take his identifying mark, and worship him. They abhor God's people and God's prophets.

    Here are the statements about the Earth-Dwellers in the Book of Revelation: (1) The hour of testing will come upon the whole world to test those who dwell on the earth (Rev. 3:10). According to this Scripture, Church-Age believers will be exempted from this hour of testing because they will have already been raptured to heaven. (2) People up in heaven who have been martyred during the Tribulation will plead for vengeance and judgment on those who dwell upon the earth and have shed their blood (Rev. 6:9, 10). (3) An eagle flying in midheaven shouted, "Woe, woe, woe to those who dwell on the earth because of the remaining blasts of the trumpet of the three angels who are about to sound" (Rev. 8:13). (4) When the two witnesses are finally killed by the Beast, those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate (Rev. 11:10). They will exchange gifts with one another because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth (Rev. 11:10). (5) All who dwell on the earth will worship the Beast – everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the slain Lamb's Book of Life (Rev. 13:8). (6) He (the False Prophet) exercises all the authority of the first Beast in his presence. And he makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first Beast, whose fatal wound was healed. (Rev. 13:12). (7) And he [the False Prophet] deceives those who dwell on the earth because of the miraculous signs which it was given him to perform in the presence of the Beast, telling those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the Beast who had the wound of the sword and has come to life (Rev. 13:14). (8) An angel showed John the judgment of the Great Prostitute "who sits on many waters, (Rev. 17:1) with whom the kings of the earth committed acts of immorality, and those who dwell on the earth were made drunk with the wine of her immorality" (Rev. 17:2). (9) "The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the Abyss and go to destruction. And those who dwell on the earth, whose name has not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will wonder when they see the beast, that he was and is not and will come" (Rev. 17:8) (emphases mine).

Ecclesiology. The study of the Church. The word "Ecclesiology" comes from two Greek words, ekklēsía (1577), meaning an "assembly of called out ones," usually translated in English, "church"; and lógos (3056), "word" or "message" or "study" about something. Ecclesiology is a division of Theology that includes such topics as a Definition of the Church, the Purpose or Mission of the Church (Matt. 28:18-20; Acts 1:8), the Distinction between a Local Church and the Universal Church, Leadership and Governance in the Church, the Ordinances of the Church (Baptism and Communion), and the Church Age (Dispensation of Grace / Church). Important subtopics include Giftedness in the Church (Rom. 12:3-8; 1 Cor. 12:1-14:40), and whether such gifts as Apostleship and Prophecy still exist today. Is there such a thing as Apostolic Succession? (The study of Spiritual Gifts more properly relates to Pneumatology, the Study of the Holy Spirit. However, there is an overlap between spiritual gifts bestowed by the Holy Spirit and ministry in the local Church.) For more articles on the topic "Church" see WordExplain's division of Theology entitled "Ecclesiology." See also the off-site article, "What is Ecclesiology?"

Eden. The site of the Garden in which God first situated man in the pristine earth. The first reference to both Eden and the garden in it is found in Gen. 2:8. Eden is ‘êden (5731), and means "delight," "pleasure," or perhaps "place of abundant waters." A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden there. It was a river the likes of which we have no modern day parallel, for this river divided into four rivers – the Pishon, the Gihon, the Tigris, and the Euphrates (Gen. 2:10, 11, 13, 14). We have little idea of the location of the first two in that pre-Flood earth, although the Pishon was associated with the land of Havilah (Gen. 2:11), and the Gihon with the land of Cush (Gen. 2:13). The latter two surviving rivers presently border the land of Mesopotamia (Assyria, Gen. 2:14, modern day eastern Syria and Iraq) before they merge and flow into the Persian Gulf. About all we can say of the pre-Flood Eden is that it was probably situated somewhere in the Middle East. As we have stated, there was a garden associated with Eden (Gen. 2:8, 10, 15; 3:23), from which fallen man was banished (Gen. 3:24). Thereafter, Cain, who murdered his brother, went out from the presence of the LORD and settled in the land of Nod, east of Eden (Gen. 4:16). Evidently, the anointed cherub, who later rebelled against God and degenerated into Satan, was once situated in Eden, the garden of God (Ezek. 28:13). In the Millennial kingdom God will make the desolate land of Israel like the Garden of Eden (Isa. 51:3; Ezek. 36:35).

Edom. The land that lies at the SE corner of the Dead Sea. Edom ('ĕdôm, 123) means "red." Esau came forth from the womb  "red" ('aḏmōnî, 132) (Gen. 25:25), lexically closely related to the name Edom, Esau's nickname (Gen. 25:30). Esau moved to the land of Seir, which became the country of Edom (Gen. 32:3; 36:8). Idumea is a later name for Edom. Today the land of Edom is a portion of the modern day country of Jordan. The Edomites throughout their history have been antagonistic toward
Israel. The same is true with the modern country of Jordan toward Israel. Malachi 1:2-3 (cf. also Rom. 1:10-16) expresses God's elective choice of Jacob over Esau, a progenitor of the people of Edom. Malachi 1:2-4 expressed God's judgment upon Edom. The entire Book of Obadiah also expresses God's judgment upon Edom and the eventual triumph of Israel over Edom. See the author's "Analysis of Obadiah: The Downfall of Edom."

Eisegesis. Reading a meaning into the text of Scripture that is foreign to it in its context, or to the broader context of Scripture. The term is coined from the opposite of the Greek verb exêgeomai (1834), which means to "explain." We derive our transliterated English verb or adjective exegete or the noun exegesis from exêgeomai, used, for example, in John 1:18. The Greek prefix "ex" means "out of," while the Greek prefix "eis" means "into." Thus eisegesis refers to "explaining" a foreign meaning "into" the text of Scripture. Nondispensationalists, for example, are guilty of eisegesis, I believe, when they insist that the "land of Canaan" promises God made to the physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are fulfilled in the Church's inheritance of the New Earth and New Jerusalem.

Elder.  A leader of Israel in the Old Testament; a leader of a local church in the New Testament.  In the OT elders represented the nation (Ex. 3:15-18) and individual cities (Ruth 4:1-11).  In the NT, elders were appointed in fledgling churches (Acts 14:23; Tit. 1:5).  The primary task of a NT elder is to shepherd the flock, or local church (Acts 20:28).  Shepherding God’s flock involves guarding (Acts 20:28-31), feeding (John 21:15-17), and guiding (Rev. 7:16-17).  Elders’ qualifications are listed in 1 Tim. 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9.  Elders’ motivation and style are described in 1 Peter 5:1-4.  The NT word for elder is presbuteros (from whence comes the Presbyterian Church); the word describing the job description of elders is episkopos, bishop, which means overseer.  The Episcopalian Church derives its name from this word.  There are only two offices in the New Testament church, that of elder and that of deacon. See Bishop.  See Biblical Eldership.


Elect, Election, Chosen.  God’s selection of individuals and peoples for service or salvation.  

The verb "to choose" is eklegomai, (1586), the noun "chosen one(s)" or "choice" is eklogê (1589). NT examples of God or Christ choosing (verbal form, eklegomai1586), people for service include Luke 6:13; John 6:70; 13:18; 15:16; Acts 1:2; 15:7. NT examples of God or Christ choosing (verbal form) people for salvation include Mark 13:20; John 15:19; Eph. 1:4; James 2:5.  God's choosing of the patriarchs of Israel can be seen in Acts 13:17. 

Examples of those who are the "chosen one(s)" or of God's "choice" (the noun, eklogê 1589) include Saul for service (Acts 9:15), of God's choice of Jacob over Esau (Rom. 9:11); of God's choice of certain Israelis for salvation (Rom. 11:5, 17); of God's choice of the nation of Israel (Rom. 11:28); of God's choice of NT believers for salvation (1 Thess. 1:4; 2 Pet. 1:10).

The Old Testament is replete with examples of God’s choices.  God chose Abraham (Gen. 12:1-7), Isaac (Gen. 17:18-21), Jacob (Gen. 25:21-23), and the nation of Israel as a whole (Ex. 19:1-6; Deut. 7:1-8).  God chose Moses as deliverer and prophet (Ex. 3:1-4:31), Gideon as deliverer and judge (Judges 6:1-24), David as a king (1 Sam. 16:1-14), and Jeremiah as a prophet (Jer. 1:1-10).  

In the New Testament, Jesus chose Saul (later called Paul) to bear His name before Gentiles, kings, and the sons of Israel (Acts 9:1-16). Furthermore, there are New Testament Scriptures which reveal that God has chosen some to salvation (Eph. 1:4; 2 Thess. 2:13; Tit. 1:1).  It cannot be argued that God is unfair in choosing.  If God were merely fair, all would be eternally damned.  God has the right to be more than fair, generous, or merciful, with whomever He desires (Matt. 20:1-16; Rom. 9:6-18), and as Creator, He has the right to do whatever He wishes with His creatures (Rom. 9:19-21).  Election does not violate man’s freedom to choose (Rev. 22:17).  Frankly, however, inasmuch as fallen man is dead in his sins, hopelessly influenced by the ungodly world, manipulated by Satan, and strangled by the lusts of his own flesh, his freedom to choose God has been utterly compromised (Eph. 2:1-3).  He is a slave to sin and inimical to God.  As such, he does that which he wishes to do. Unless God works in the heart of a human, none will ever wish to choose Him (Rom. 3:9-20).  So if any are to be saved, God must choose them.  God’s choice is not based upon man’s merit, for as a sinner estranged from God, he has none.  God’s choice is solely gracious, and for that He is to be praised (Rom. 9:11; Eph. 2:8-10).  In today's America, for example, there is an ongoing battle over what constitutes fairness. Political Conservatives believe that fairness means providing equal opportunity, while political Progressives believe fairness means providing equal outcomes, at least up to a point. Let us not be guilty of imposing human "feel-good" definitions of fairness on God. God clearly issues an invitation, and thus the opportunity to all to be saved, but He imposes His invitation on no one. Every man does that which he wishes to do (Mark 10:17-23). But men are so trapped and deadened by sin that unless God chooses some, none will ever be saved. Those who have been elected, or chosen by God are calledFor a fuller discussion of these matters, see God's Part in Salvation - Election.


Enclitic. Words in Koine Greek that are considered to be closely associated with their preceding word in a phrase – they lean back – when it comes to accentuation. Examples include the indefinite pronoun (tis, ti) ("a certain one"), some forms of the personal pronoun (e.g. mou, sou) "my," "your")

What is the difference between an enclitic and a proclitic?  Enclitics are considered to be closely associated with their preceding word in a phrase – they lean back – when it comes to accentuation.  Proclitics are considered to be associated with the following word – they lean forward.


Elijah. Perhaps the foremost prophet of Israel, outside of Moses (and Jesus, of course). I say foremost because, at Jesus' Transfiguration, Elijah appeared, along with Moses, representing the future Kingdom of Israel (Matt. 16:28-17:8). In that instance, it is likely that Moses represented the Law, and Elijah represented the Prophets. Elijah was called to be prophet in the days of Ahab, son of Omri (1 Kings 16:29), who ruled the Northern Kingdom of Israel from 874-852 BC. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD than all the kings who were before him (1 Kings 16:30). Not only did he retain the idolatrous golden calves of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, but he married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, King of Sidon, and he served Baal and worshiped him, erecting an altar for Baal in the house of Baal which he built in Samaria. Moreover he made the Asherah (1 Kings 16:31-33).

    Elijah hailed from the town of Tishbe (1 Kings 17:1). BibleAtlas equates the town with Hazor, but provides no proof. The same passage located him either formerly or presently in Gilead (1 Kings 17:1). There is no record of Elijah's call as a prophet. He is introduced in the narrative as confronting Ahab, "As the LORD, the God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, surely there will be neither dew nor rain these years, except by my word" (1 Kings 17:1). This was, in the context, a punishment on Israel for the horrendous idolatry introduced by Ahab. With that announcement, Elijah evidently departed. God knew his life was in danger, and instructed him to hide himself by the brook Cherith, east of the Jordan. There God miraculously fed him (1 Kings 17:2-6). When the brook dried up because of the drought, God sent him to a destitute widow in the city of Zarephath. God miraculously provided for her, her son, and Elijah (1 Kings 17:7-16). Subsequently, Elijah raised her dead son back to life (1 Kings 17:17-24).

    The most prominent miracle in Elijah's career was his confrontation of 450 prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:1-46). Of course, the false prophets were unable to call down fire from heaven upon the sacrifice, but the God of Israel answered Elijah's prayer, and fire fell from heaven, devouring the sacrifice, the stones, the wood, the dust, and the water in the trench! Elijah ordered the people to seize the prophets of Baal and he had them all killed. When Jezebel threatened to kill Elijah, he fled for his life (1 Kings 19:1-14). He was depressed, but God gave him work to do. Part of that work was to anoint Elisha son of Shaphat as prophet in his stead (1 Kings 19:15-21). Later, when Jezebel had Naboth killed so Ahab could steal his vineyard, Elijah pronounced his demise and that of his evil wife (1 Kings 21:1-28).

    King Ahaziah, son of Ahab and Jezebel, fell through the lattice in his upper chamber in Samaria, and was significantly injured. He sent messengers to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, as to whether he would survive. Directed by an angel, Elijah informed the messengers that Ahaziah would indeed die. When the messengers reported back to Ahaziah, he sent a contingent of 50 soldiers to capture him. Fire came down from heaven and destroyed them. So Ahaziah sent another group of 50. Again, fire consumed them. Ahaziah sent a third group of 50. This captain pled for his life, and the angel told Elijah he could trust this commander. So Elijah went with him and told Ahaziah he would not recover, but would die (2 Kings 1:1-18).

    In 2 Kings 2, God was going to take Elijah to heaven in a whirlwind. Elijah was going to go alone, but Elisha refused to stay behind. When it was time to cross the Jordan, Elijah took his mantle and struck the water. It parted, and the two walked across on dry ground. Elijah asked Elisha what he wanted. He asked for a double portion of Elijah's spirit. Elijah said that was a hard thing, but if Elisha were present when Elijah departed, his request would be granted. As they walked along, a chariot of fire and horses of fire appeared, and Elijah went up to heaven by means of a whirlwind. Elisha picked up Elijah's mantle, returned to the Jordan and asked, "Where is the God of Elijah?", and he struck the water. The river parted, and he crossed on dry ground (2 Kings 2:1-14).


Elisha. Successor to the Prophet Elijah. His ministry lasted sixty years, during the reigns of Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Joash, kings of Israel.


Elohim. The more or less generic name for God, probably with the meaning "Strong One." The name 'ĕlôhı̂ym (430) consistently appears in the plural. Most theologians write off the plural as a "plural of majesty." I disagree. Its plurality reflects that God is a most complex being: He consists of a plurality of three persons, but together they constitute a unity (Deut. 6:4).God's special name in relation to Israel is Yahweh, revealed to Moses at his call at or near Mt. Sinai (Ex. 3:1-4:17). Occasionally the name Elohim refers to human rulers and judges (Psa. 82:6; John 10:34). Sometimes it refers to false gods (Deut. 4:28; 1 Kings 11:33).


Enthronement Psalms. These are psalms which celebrate God reigning as the greatest King. Eschatologically, they anticipate the return of Jesus Christ to reign over the earth in righteousness and equity in His Millennial Kingdom. Ultimately they anticipate the Co-Regency of God and Christ from New Jerusalem over the New Earth in a pristine New Universe in which only righteousness exists. Enthronement psalms include Psalm 47; 93; 95-99.


Entitlement Mentality. The frame of mind that one is entitled to possess certain things that popular culture has deemed necessary. In a political sense this mentality has asserted itself in the economic theory of Socialism. The United States was founded on a platform of hard work, earning one's own way in life, and submission to a Sovereign God. The Achilles' Heel of Americanism has been that Americans might forget God, and might vote for politicians who would give them not what was best for the country, but best for them personally. It has been a gradual journey, but when a graduated income tax was instituted by Congress in 1913, America had, perhaps unwittingly, taken a giant step towards Marxism. It was Karl Marx, after all, who promoted the mantra, "From each according to his ability; to each according to his need." This utopian dream has never worked out well over a long period of team. In America, too many Americans now believe that they should vote for politicians who will give them benefits out of the public treasury. It was Margaret Thatcher who astutelly proclaimed, "The trouble with socialism is that after a time the government runs out of other peoples' money." The point of this brief essay is that Americans increasingly have an entitlement mentality. They think they are entitled to x, y, and z. This shows itself clearly in laws that are prefixed with the word, "Title," as in Title XIX (Grants to States for Medical Assistance). The word "Title" is short for the more transparent word, "Entitlement."

On a theological level, there are some Christians who have developed an Entitlement Mentality. In this context, many Americans flock to preachers who preach a Prosperity Gospel, that Christians are entitled to Health and to Wealth. That is a confusion of God's plan for Israeli believers, descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with God's plan for Christian believers, wherein blessings are cited as being spiritual blessings (Eph. 1:3). God did, indeed, promise material blessings to the early patriarchs of Israel. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob prospered economically and materially as part of God's blessing on their lives (Gen. 12:1-3; 24:34-35; 26:12-14; 30:43). And God extended that promise of physical and material prosperity to the people of Israel as long as they obeyed Him (Deut. 28:1-14; compare Deut. 28:15-68). But God has made no such promises to the Church. Jesus has promised us, in this world, tribulation (John 16:33), but we are to be cheerful, and peaceful, for He has conquered the world. See also the Glossary entry, "Health and Wealth Gospel."


Esau. The elder twin son of Jacob and Rebekah. When her sons were in her womb, Rebekah felt such violence that she prayed to God for an explanation. He told her that two nations were within her and that the elder would serve the younger (Gen. 25:22-23). Esau came forth from the womb red (Gen. 25:25), and his nickname, Edom, the territory where he eventually settled, means "red"  (Gen. 25:30). Esau did not have a heart for Godly values. He sold his birthright to his cunning brother Jacob for some tasty stew (Gen. 25:29-34; Heb. 12:16-17), and he married Godless Hittite women (Gen. 27:46-28:1-2). We read of God's election of Jacob over Esau mirrored by the phrase, "Jacob have I loved, but Esau I have hated (Mal. 1:2-3; Rom. 9:13). Esau became identified with Edom (Gen. 32:3; 36:1, 8, 9), encompassed within the modern nation of Jordan. The Edomites throughout their history have been antagonistic toward Israel. The same is true with the modern country of Jordan and Israel. The Book of Obadiah expresses God's judgment upon Edom and the eventual triumph of Israel over Edom. See the author's "Analysis of Obadiah: The Downfall of Edom."


Eschatological. Descriptive of that which has to do with last things or end-times yet to come. When I say that an event is eschatological, I mean that it has to do with the Rapture, or the Tribulation, or Christ’s Second Coming, or His Millennial Kingdom, or the Final Revolt, or the Destruction of the Existing Universe, or the Great White Throne Judgment, or Eternity in the New Jerusalem and on New Earth, or a combination of any or all of those events. But a great many scholars who hold to a nonliteral  hermeneutic tend to dump all those ingredients into one big kettle that all comes to pass, in their view, at about the same time, and they label it "eschatological." What they mix up (the pun is deliberate) turns out to be a singular, amorphous, bland eschatological stew. For example, a great many of them do not recognize the existence of a literal 1000-year reign of Christ here upon earth because they don't take prophecy literally. Many of them believe we are already in the "nonliteral" (to them) millennium now because, in their view Christ is presently reigning as King up in heaven. (I strongly disagree with them, but that's another story. I believe Christ is presently serving as Priest, not as King. That is a major point of the book of Hebrews. His reign as King awaits His return to earth.) So they tend to mix up all the separate events to which I have referred above into one ill-differentiated, non-literal eschatological stew that will all happen at some nondescript time in the distant future. To illustrate further, passages which to me speak clearly of Christ's Millennial rule here on earth (Isa. 2:1-4; Ezek. 40:1-48:35; Zech. 14:8-11, 16-24) for a thousand years (Rev. 20:1-7) nonliteralists lump together with passages such as Rev. 21:1-22:5 that clearly describe eternity, which the Bible teaches is at least a thousand years after Christ's return to rule the earth. So the reader must distinguish what a particular writer means by the word "eschatological."


Eschatology.  The study of last things.  Eschatology deals with the prophetic Scriptures.  WordExplain adopts a dispensational approach to prophetic Scriptures and holds that Israel has an abiding place in God’s plan for both the present and the future earth.  The Church has not replaced Israel in God’s plans, but rather presently occupies God’s program of blessing and evangelism.  Israel is currently in a state of temporary blindness (Rom. 11), but that will only last until the times of the Gentiles have been completed (Luke 21:24).  The main events of eschatology include the present Church Age, terminated by the Rapture, followed by the Tribulation, Christ’s Second Coming and Millennial Kingdom, the Final Revolt, the Destruction of the Existing Universe, the Great White Throne Judgment, and Eternity in the New Jerusalem and on New Earth.


ESVS. English Standard Version with Strong's Lexicon.


Eternal. That which exists forever. For all created beings eternal only exists forward in time from one's beginning. In the OT the noun ôlām (5769) best captures the concept of eternal. It first appears in Gen. 3:22, where God was aghast at the thought of fallen man and woman living "forever" in their sin-cursed bodies. It is translated as "everlasting" (Gen. 9:16) in the context of God's assigning the rainbow as a solemn reminder of His covenant never again to destroy every living creature on earth again through a global flood (Gen. 9:9-17). God used the noun again when He promised to give the land of Canaan to Abraham and his seed "forever" (Gen. 13:15), for an "everlasting" possession (Gen. 17:8). To me this is a guarantee that the land of Canaan, or land of Israel, will exist permanently upon New Earth (Rev. 21:1-22:5).

    In the NT, writers employ the adjective aiōnios (166) to signify the word "eternal." We read in John 3:16 that God so loved the world that He gave His only-born Son so that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have "eternal" life. In the coming judgment of the Gentiles who survive the Tribulation, Jesus will say to the ones on His left, "Depart from me, accursed ones, into the "eternal" fire which has been prepared for the Devil and his angels" (Matt. 25:41). The others, the righteous, will go into "eternal" life in Christ's Millennial Kingdom (Matt. 25:46). At Pisidian Antioch, when the Gentiles heard that Paul and Barnabas were turning their attention to the Gentiles, "they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to 'eternal' life believed" (Acts 13:48).

Eternity.  Infinite existence backward and forward in time.  Once man comes into existence, he exists forward in time into eternity, either in a state of life or death.  For humans death is never cessation of existence, but rather separation from God and, ultimately, from all that is good.  Life is union with God, and, because God is good, participation in goodness.  God, as an infinite being, has always existed and always will exist.  God has existed from eternity past and will exist, unchanged, into eternity future.  God is truly eternal, the only One without beginning or ending.


Eternal Kingdom. Technically speaking, the reign of Jesus Christ commencing with His Second Coming in power and extending into eternity, since the angel Gabriel assured Mary her son would sit on "the throne of His father David," "reign over the house of Jacob forever" in a kingdom that would "have no end" (Luke 1:32-33). Practically speaking, however, we define the Eternal Kingdom as that portion of Christ's reign in which He "hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power, having placed "all His enemies under His feet" and having abolished the last enemy, death (1 Cor. 15:24-26). 

That is why, from a practical point of view, we must limit the Eternal Kingdom to the co-regency of God and the Son from their single throne in New Jerusalem. Though Jesus begins His Millennial reign by vanquishing all his human enemies (Zech. 14:1-15; Rev. 19:11-21; Ezek. 20:33-38; Matt. 25:1-46), not all his enemies will be destroyed. His arch enemy, Satan, will be restricted for the thousand year duration of His earthly reign (Rev. 20:1-3), but then he will be released from the abyss. At the conclusion of the Millennium, he will succeed in deceiving incredible numbers of unregenerate humans, who will revolt against the King and His administration. They will be thwarted by fire, which comes down from heaven (Rev. 20:7-9). Satan will be seized and deposited in "the lake of fire and brimstone (Rev. 20:10)," the existing universe will be destroyed (2 Pet. 3:7-12; Rev. 20:11), and the wicked dead of all ages will be judged and deposited into the "lake of fire," which constitutes the Second Death (Rev. 20:11-15).

Then God will create New Heaven and New Earth, a universe in which only righteousness exists (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1, 8, 27; 22:15). New Jerusalem will descend out of heaven, heretofore, the abode of God. From this point on both God the Father and Christ the Son will dwell with man eternally in New Jerusalem in conjunction with New Earth, inhabited by a multitude of nations, all of whom have 24-hour access to the capital city.

In the Eternal Kingdom, there will no longer be any sea, God will dwell among man. He will wipe away all tears, and He will banish forever death, mourning, and pain (Rev. 21:1-4). The capital city, New Jerusalem, will be the home of both Israel and the Church. It will be a city of prodigious size and breath-taking beauty and glory. "From the single throne of God and of the Lamb" will flow "the river of water of life," and residents of both New Jerusalem and New Earth will have ready access, not only to the fruit of the "tree of life," but also to the energizing benefit of its leaves.

God the Father and Christ the Son will be seated on their throne in a co-regency throughout eternity. His slaves will serve Him (meaning both worship Him and serve Him) in intimate fellowship with Him, and they will reign with  Him forever. Evidently there will be work to do on behalf of the King throughout eternity. The word reign, basileuo, is the standard word for a king reigning. There will be no opposition to God and Christ, but there will be administrative requirements in New Jerusalem and on New Earth. Conquest, police action, detection, prosecution, judiciary action, and incarceration, no. Organization and administration, yes.

What a glorious, eternal time of fellowship between God and man and among men, and service on behalf of the King will be the lot of all the redeemed for all ages!


Eternal Life.  Eternal life is union with God through Jesus Christ, and since God is good, eternal life is the experience of goodness into infinite time forward.  Man, fallen sinner that he is, lives in a state of spiritual death, separated from God, and thus dying physically.  If his spiritual death remains unremedied, his decaying physical life will be terminated in physical death.  Then his end can only be second death, eternal separation from God in the Lake of Fire and Brimstone.  Eternal life can only be obtained through faith in Jesus Christ (John 3:16).  Faith in Jesus appropriates for oneself Jesus’ sacrificial death on behalf of sinners.  Faith accepts Jesus’ payment, and God acquits or justifies the believing sinner, crediting him with righteousness and eternal life.  Eternal life is a present possession of every believer in Jesus.  The ultimate end of eternal life is eternal existence in fellowship with God and Jesus in New Jerusalem upon New Earth.


Eternal Security. The position that genuine believers in Jesus Christ are recipients of eternal life -- a condition that, by definition, cannot be terminated. This means that believers, though not perfect, are perfectly forgiven. As heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, they cannot lose their salvation. Salvation is by grace through faith, without any merits on the part of the redeemed. There is nothing we could do to earn our salvation, and there is nothing we can do to keep our salvation. That is God's business. Our eternal salvation depends not upon our faithfulness, for we are not faithful. Rather it depends on God's faithfulness. 

There are some passages which, at face value, might be construed as teaching that one can lose his salvation. There are, for example, warning passages in the book of Hebrews. But understood in context, these passages do not teach that one can lose his salvation. The reader is welcome to consider the article, "Does Hebrews 10:26-31 teach that Christians can lose their salvation?" WordExplain answers that question in the negative. There is such a thing as being a carnal or fleshly Christian, as distasteful as that may be (1 Cor. 3:1-3). God does discipline His children (Heb. 12:3-13). There is such a thing as Christians who die a physical death because they are so far out of fellowship with God (Acts 5:1-11; 1 Cor. 5:1-5; 11:27-31; 1 John 5:16-17). But even if a Christian builds with wood, hay, and stubble upon the foundation of Christ, and though he loses all for which he has labored and suffers loss, yet he himself will be saved (1 Cor. 3:10-15).

There are many reasons why it is accurate to state that the New Testament teaches that believers in Jesus cannot lose their salvation. Among them are the following:

(1) The nature of eternal life. The New Testament is clear that those who trust in Jesus, the Messiah, are granted eternal life, literally, "life into the ages." If the life we are given is eternal, how can it be terminated? That is a non sequitur. See, for example, John 3:15, 16, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24; 6:40, 47, 54, 68; 10:28; 17:2-3.

(2) Those who trust in Jesus Christ, being forgiven, are under no condemnation whatever. Since Christ has fully paid the penalty for their sins, they cannot suffer double jeopardy. Jesus has fully paid the penalty for their sins. Their is no further charge against them. They stand uncondemned before God legally. John 3:18; 5:24; Rom. 5:16; 8:1, 33-34.

(3) Jesus declared that His sheep hear His voice, He knows them, and they follow Him. He gives them eternal life. They will never perish, and no one can snatch them out of His hand. Furthermore, Jesus' Father, who gave Him His sheep, is greater than all. Absolutely no one is able to snatch them out of His Father's hand. John 10:26-29.

(4) The Apostle Paul speaks of a group of people in Romans 8:29-30. From start to finish, this is the same group of people. None are added; none are subtracted. This group of people consists of those whom (a) God foreknew as His own from some time in the dateless past. (b) This same group of people God predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son. (c) This same group of people He called. (d) This same group of people God justified. (e) This same group of people God glorified. There is no leakage from this group. I know of no stronger statement anywhere in Scripture of the security of the believer than this passage in Romans.

(5) Nothing in all of creation can separate us from the love of God in Christ (Romans 8:31-39).

(6) The gifts and calling of God are irrevocable (Romans 11:29). God does not choose someone for eternal salvation and then discard them. Whomever God chooses God stands behind. God is not a disloyal God. He is the consummately loyal God to His own. He disciplines His own (Heb. 12:3-13), but He never abandons them.

(7) The permanent presence of the indwelling Spirit. To His followers Jesus revealed that the Helper, or Advocate that the Father would send them would remain with them forever (John 14:16-17). How could that  possibly be true if those who believe in Jesus can lose their salvation?

(8) Every believer in Christ  has been sealed with the Holy Spirit. That sealing is an inviolable, unbreakable seal. He is God's downpayment, God's guarantee of our inheritance. We are God's possession and He will redeem His possession -- the Holy Spirit is His guarantee that He will do so (Ephesians 1:13-14). We are sealed for the day of our redemption by the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30). It is unthinkable that we could lose our salvation, for then God would lose His Spirit with whom He has sealed us.


Eternal State.  Popularly, heaven as it exists in eternity.  More accurately, the eternal state consists of New Heaven and New Earth with New Jerusalem coming down out of heaven to exist as the eternal capital city of redeemed and immortal humanity upon New Earth. The Eternal State is coterminous with the Eternal Kingdom of God. In this Eternal Kingdom, God and the Lamb (Jesus Christ) are enthroned as co-regents in New Jerusalem (Rev. 22:1, 3). His slaves will serve Him (Rev. 21:3). They will see His face, and His name (not the mark of the Beast, Rev. 13:16, 17) will be on their foreheads (Rev. 21:4). There will no longer be any night; yet there will be no need of the sun or any artificial light, for the Lord God will illumine them. And they will reign forever and ever. God's original mandate for man was to rule over the earth and its animals (Gen. 1:26-28). When man disobeyed God (Gen. 3:1-7), he forfeited the ability to be a benevolent ruler. He became corrupted with sin, death, and plagued by the Devil and his sinister influence. The ground was cursed. Man would eventually die and decay into dust (Gen. 3:17-19). The original earth and the entire universe had been infected by sin and had to be destroyed (2 Pet. 3:7, 10-12). Providentially, God would then create New Heavens and a New Earth, in which would exist only righteousness and righteous people (2 Pet. 3:13; Rev. 21:1). In this utopian environment, God would come from heaven to tent with man in New Jerusalem in connection with New Earth and live among them (Rev. 21:2-3). There would no longer be any tears, death, mourning, crying, or pain (Rev. 21:4). Those who conquer will inherit these things (Rev. 21:7), but evil people will be forever excluded in the Lake of Fire and Sulfur (Rev. 21:8). The Eternal State will feature a gigantic and splendid capital city New Jerusalem, also designated as the bride, the wife of the Lamb (Rev. 21:9). This is in contrast to the abominable Prostitute, Babylon (Rev. 17:1-18:24). Like Babylon, New Jerusalem consists of a literal city, a political government, and a religion. Everything about Babylon will be sordid and temporary. Everything about New Jerusalem will be beauty, light, truth, and eternity. The featured city of the Eternal State is New Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel and of the Church. Its twelve gates bear the names of the twelve sons of Israel (Rev. 21:10-13). Its twelve foundations bear the names of the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb (Rev. 21:14), representing the Church. The City is of a prodigious size measuring nearly 1500 miles in length, width, and height (Rev. 21:15-16). The city is comprised of all manner of precious minerals and metals, a city of incredible beauty. Even its foundations are a kaleidoscope of beauty (Rev. 21:17-21). There will be no temple in this city, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb, Jesus, are its temple (Rev. 21:22). The glory of God and of the Lamb will illumine the city, and the redeemed Gentile nations of New Earth will walk and work by the light of the city (Rev. 21:23-24). The nations and kings of New Earth will bring their produce and manufactured goods into New Jerusalem as a way of bringing honor and glory to the Co-Regents and the citizens of the city (Rev. 21:24-26). The city will never be defiled (Rev. 21:27). The city will be graced with the River of Water of Life and the Tree of Life (Rev. 22:1-2). There will no longer exist any curse (Rev. 22:3). God's subjects will reign forever and ever. That is the Eternal State, situated in New Jerusalem and New Earth, not in heaven (Rev. 21:1, 10).


Eucharist. The term Roman Catholics prefer to use to describe the Lord's Supper. Scriptures where the Greek verb eucharistéō (2168) is used in this context include Matt. 26:27; Mark 14:23; Luke 22:17, 19; 1 Cor. 11:24. Terms such as the Lord's Supper, the Table of the Lord or Communion, are terms preferred by Protestants because they more accurately describe the content of the rite instead of merely focusing on the prayer at the beginning of the rite. For more information on the term from a Roman Catholic point of view, see the following off-site articles: Eucharist, Introduction; Eucharist as Sacrifice of the Mass; Eucharist, Early Symbols of the; Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in; Eucharistic Prayer.


Evangelism, Evangelize. The practice of proclaiming the Good News about the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 8:12). The English verb "evangelize" is actually transliterated from the Greek verb euaggelídzō (2097), meaning, literally, "to good-news-icize," i.e. to proclaim the good news about something. The context defines the content of the good news.

    There are instances of Jesus proclaiming the good news to the poor (Matt. 11:5; Luke 4:18). Jesus proclaimed the good news of the kingdom of God to various cities in the nation of Israel (Luke 4:43; 8:1; 9:6; 16:16; 20:1). There are instances of people in the early church proclaiming the good news. After the great persecution began, those who were scattered went about proclaiming the message of the good news (Acts 8:4). Philip, one of those scattered, went to the city of Samaria and began proclaiming the good news about the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ (Acts 8:12). When the apostles in Jerusalem heard that the Samaritans had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to pray that they might receive the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:14-17). On their way back to Jerusalem the two were proclaiming the good news to many villages of the Samaritans (Acts 8:25). Paul and Barnabas, on their First Missionary Journey proclaimed the good news to various cities, including Derbe (Acts 14:20-21). On Paul's Second Missionary Journey God called Paul and his team to travel from Asia to Europe to begin proclaiming the good news to the people of Macedonia (Acts 16:10). Paul made it his business to proclaim the good news (Rom. 1:15; 15:20; 1 Cor. 9:16, 18). Paul was concerned that some might proclaim a false good news (Gal. 1:8, 9). Paul understood it was his privilege and responsibility to proclaim the good news of the unfathomable riches of Christ to the Gentiles (Eph. 3:8). In the Tribulation, there will be an angel flying in midheaven who will proclaim the eternal good news to those sitting upon the earth, and to every nation, tribe, people, and tongue (Rev. 14:6). (Incidentally, those sitting upon the earth (Rev. 14:6) might well be more inclined to respond positively to the angelic messenger's good news than those dwelling upon the earth [cf. Rev. 11:10; 13:8, 12, 14].)


Eve. The first woman. God created the first man, Adam, first. Then God planted a  garden in Eden, wherein He placed the man to cultivate it and keep it. Adam could eat freely from any tree in the garden except from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. In the day he ate from it, he would surely die (Gen. 2:15-17). He then observed that it was not good for the man to be alone. He would remedy that situation by making a helper suitable for him (Gen. 2:18). He then brought the animals to Adam to see what he would name them. Among all the animals, there was not a suitable helper for Adam (Gen. 2:19-20). So God gave Adam a deep general anesthetic, took one of his ribs, closed up Adam's flesh, then from the rib formed a woman, then brought her to Adam, now awake (Gen. 2:21-22). Adam was impressed! He said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called 'Woman' because she was taken out of Man" (Gen. 2:23). After the couple had sinned and received God's judgment (Gen. 3:1-19), Adam named his wife "Eve" because she the mother of all people who would ever live (Gen. 3:20).

Evolution.  The unproven theory, unquestioningly assumed as fact by most in the scientific, academic, and political communities, that all that exists today sprang explosively and thus miraculously by accident from disorganized matter from a point in time about 13.8 billion years ago (the presumed date of the hypothesized "Big Bang."  Evolution assumes the eternity, or at least the pre-existence of matter, with no real attempts to explain its origin.  Evolution as defined here refers to macro evolution on both a cosmic and biological continuum. It refers to the development of solar, astral, and galactic bodies from random chance, as well as the miraculous emergence of life and subsequent transition from one biological specie to another, also by random chance.  (Creationists freely admit the existence of micro evolution, development within a specie.)  The theory of evolution requires that one believes (the word is deliberately chosen) that order proceeded by accident from disorder, that life proceeded by accident from non-life, that purpose proceeded by accident from meaninglessness, that intelligence proceeded by accident from mindlessness, and that morality proceeded by accident from amorality.  Existentialist philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was at least honest about the implications of evolution. If evolution, with its law of the survival of the fittest is true, he maintained, then, hate is the noblest of virtues.  The doctrine of evolution assumes (without proof) uniformitarianism, the belief that present geologic processes have always occurred at the same rate of speed.  (Creationists believe that special creation followed by catastrophism is a far better explanation of the evidence we see everywhere in the world. Catastrophism is brilliantly illustrated, for example, in the rapid deposition of strata after the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980.) The doctrine of evolution assumes random, yet upward mobility of life forms through the agency of mutations (information accidents), which are assumed to be beneficial. (Have you ever experienced a beneficial accident?)  These accidental alterations in information advance life forms through “survival of the fittest” sorted out over vast eons of time.  The whole process is said to be illustrated in the fossil record, which starts inexplicably in the “Cambrian explosion” and is astonishingly devoid of transitional life forms, if evolution were actually true.  Though most evolutionists would deny it, evolution has become the essential scientific, academic, and political dogma, which to question is just cause for excommunication from public discourse.  The theory of macro evolution is inimically opposed to and incompatible with the God who has revealed Himself in the Bible. The earliest evolutionists were at least honest enough to admit that the doctrine was invented in part to obviate any responsibility to a Divine Creator. Modern day evolutionists are not nearly as candid. Evolution, in my mind, is one of the biggest hoaxes ever perpetrated on mankind. The progress of evolution in the United States of America has nurtured a galloping cancer in this country. This once great and noble country is rapidly declining into a lobotomized citizenry who willfully suppress the truth and discard God, in the process reaping His wrathful judgment as outlined in Romans 1:18-32. Yet there is always hope for those who believe the Good News (Romans 1:15-17)! If you are interested in discovering reality from God's point of view and participating in the Good News that a loving God has brought to a world of desperately deluded and depraved humans, read Romans chapters 1-8. Romans 9-11 deals with the question of whether or not a faithful God can permanently set aside His special nation, Israel, even with all her faults. Romans 12-16 outlines practical ways people who have embraced God's Good News are exhorted to live as children of light in a dark and depraved world!


Exegesis.  Accurate explanation of any document, but referring specifically to the Scriptures.  In John 1:18 we read, “No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.”  Jesus has accurately explained God.  The word explained is the Greek verb exegeomai, from which comes our English noun exegesis.  Accurate exegesis of Scripture depends on a literal, grammatical, historical interpretation of the text in a process that accounts for figures of speech.  Exegesis is concerned with the intent of the original author of the text.  The opposite of exegesis is eisegesis, which means that the reader reads into Scripture a meaning he has superimposed on the text.  In eisegesis, a reader can force any meaning he wishes on the text, which results in a misinterpretation.  Believers in a fluid or living Constitution, for example, are guilty of eisegesis.  They are guilty of subverting the purpose of the document.  As serious as that is, they are guilty only of destroying a nation.  Those who subvert the intent of the Biblical text are guilty, in many cases, of damning gullible souls to eternal damnation.


Exile. Judah's seventy-year captivity in Babylon. Though there were times when the nation of Israel worshiped God whole-heartedly, there were many lapses into idolatry. After the division of Israel into the Northern and Southern kingdoms as a judgment against Solomon and his late syncretism into idolatry (1 Kings 11:1-43), both kingdoms succumbed to idolatry.  The Northern Kingdom, known as Israel, had nineteen kings and all were idolatrous. The Southern Kingdom, Judah, was ruled by twenty kings. Only eight were good kings. The other twelve were evil. Assyria deported the Northern Kingdom into captivity in 722 B.C. There was no return. Because there were some good kings, the deportation of Judah was delayed by many years. Babylon conquered and began deporting Jewish people from Judah in 606, 597, and 586 B.C. The Babylonians destroyed the city of Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple in 586, leaving only a handful of Jewish people in the country. In response to the decree of Persia's King Cyrus in 538 B.C. authorizing a return to their homeland, Zerubbabel led the first contingent of Jewish exiles back to Judah in 536 B.C. (Ezra 1:1-6:22). Ezra led a second wave back in 458 B.C. during the reign of Artaxerxes, a later Persian king (Ezra 7:1-10:44). (See the Outline of the Book of Ezra.) Nehemiah returned in 444 B.C. to rebuild the walls of the city of Jerusalem. This event is described in the book of Nehemiah. (See the Outline of the Book of Nehemiah.)

Exorcism. The practice of casting out demons who are afflicting people. Christ gave his twelve disciples authority to cast out demons (Matt. 10:1-8). Later on, He sent out seventy to announce the kingdom of God (Luke 10:1-9). The seventy returned, joyfully announcing that demons had been subject to them in Jesus' name (Luke 10:17-20). The disciples were not always successful, however, in casting out demons (Matt. 17:14-18). Paul succeeded in casting out a demon from a slave-girl who possessed a spirit of divination (Acts 16:16-18). In one of the more extensive passages in the NT letters regarding spiritual warfare, belivers are given the weapons of warfare against evil powers (Eph. 6:10-18). Nothing is said, however, about exorcism. We are told to resist the devil (James 4:7), to be wary of Satan (1 Pet. 5:8), and to avoid letting our anger give the devil an opportunity (Eph. 4:26-27). Jude held up Michael the Archangel as a good example for us to emulate. When disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, Michael did not pronounce a railing judgment against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke you." So whether or not believers today have the authority from God to cast out demons is a viable question. The letters of the Apostles and their associates do not give us much instruction in that regard.

Ezekiel. One of the "major" writing prophets of the OT who lived in the sixth century B. C. and ministered to the exiles in the land of Chaldea (Babylon). Ezekiel is a prophet and the author of the book that bears his name.

The Prophet. Ezekiel was a prophet who was also a priest (Ezek. 1:3). His name means “God Strengthens” (RSB). He was evidently born about 623 B. C. (Constable). He was born in Judah, but taken captive to Babylon, the land of the Chaldeans, by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 B. C. at the age of 30. The reference to the thirtieth year (Ezek. 1:1) seems to be the thirtieth year of his life. His ministry as recorded in his well-dated book was from 592-570 B.C. (RSB) or possibly from 593-571 B. C. (Constable). Ezekiel lived in his own house in a village near Nippur alongside the River Chebar (Nebuchadnezzar’s royal canal) (Ezek. 3:15, 24). His wife died in 587. (RSB). We do not know when he died.

The Date of the Book. Ezekiel’s prophecy represents “one of the most complete chronological systems in any book of the Old Testament” (Ralph H. Alexander, quoted by Constable). Constable has an excellent table which spells out the various dates of Ezekiel’s prophecies. He states that the first prophecy was given in 593 and the fourteenth and final one was given in 573 B. C.

The Genre of the Book. According to Constable,

Ezekiel contains a combination of several types of literature. These include proverbs, visions, parables, symbolic acts, fables, allegories, quotations, oaths, rhetorical questions, disputation oracles, legal sayings, dreams, dramas, funeral dirges, historical narratives, ritual and priestly regulations, and apocalyptic revelations.

The Theme of the Book. The theme of Ezekiel is “Judgment and Restoration ‘Until All Know I Am Yahweh.’” Judgment is the theme of Ezekiel 1-32. Restoration is the theme of Ezekiel 33-48. An expanding series of brief outlines can be found at Brief Outlines of Ezekiel (10 pages). There is also a lengthier Analysis of Ezekiel (23 pages).

Notable Passages in the Book. Noteworthy passages in Ezekiel include (1) his vision of the four cherubim and the glory of God (Ezek. 1); (2) the commissioning of Ezekiel as a “watchman” to the rebellious sons of Israel (Ezek. 2-3); (3) Ezekiel’s vision of Yahweh’s judgment and desertion of Jerusalem (Ezek. 8-11); (4) the parable of Jerusalem as Yahweh’s bride-turned-prostitute (Ezek. 16); (5) the parable of the two sisters (Ezek. 23); (6) the lamentation over the King of Tyre as representing the original glory of Lucifer and the prideful fall of Satan (Ezek. 28:11-19); (7) the vision of the valley of dry bones – the Resurrection, Restoration, and Regeneration of Israel (Ezek. 37:1-14); (8) the prophecy against the invading Gog of the land of Magog and his allies (Ezek. 38-39); (9) The detailed prophecy of the Millennial Temple filled with the glory of God (Ezek. 40-46); (10) the prophecy of the Millennial Land of Israel (Ezek. 47-48) with its life-giving river (Ezek. 47:1-12); the boundaries of the land (Ezek. 47:13-23); and the division of the land (Ezek. 48).

Stylistic Distinctives of the Book. (1) “The clause ‘you will know that I am the Lord’ occurs about 65 times in Ezekiel, and repeatedly in the oracles about foreign nations (chs. 25-32) (Constable, citing Pearson). (2) Ezekiel writes his tome from an autobiographical perspective. “Almost all of his oracles (except 1:2-3; 24:24) appear in the first person giving the impression that they are memoirs of a true prophet of Yahweh” (Constable). (3) "There are only two voices in Ezekiel's book, the prophet's and God's. Those who consult and oppose Yahweh and Ezekiel never speak. The words of the latter are doubly framed; Ezekiel quotes Yahweh quoting them in refutation” (Constable quoting Jerome Murphy O’Connor). (4) The name by which Yahweh addressed Ezekiel is “Son of Man” (93 times) (Constable).

Outlines of the Book by the Present Author: "Judgment and Restoration 'Until All Know I Am Yahweh'"

Ezra. Ezra was son of Seraiah, and a distant descendant of Aaron, the Chief Priest (Ez. 7:1-5). He was also a scribe skilled in the Law of Moses. He traveled from Babylon to Jerusalem in July-August, 458 BC (Ezra 7:6-8). Ezra is one of my personal heroes: "For Ezra had set his heart to study the law of the LORD and to practice it, and to teach His statutes and ordinances in Israel" (Ezra 7:10). He had the blessing and the official protection and authorization of King Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:11-28). The King granted Ezra all his requests "because the hand of the LORD his God was upon him" (Ezra 7:6). Ezra 7:1-10:44 describes Ezra's efforts to bring about spiritual revival to the returned exiles in Jerusalem. Ezra was a contemporary of Nehemiah (Neh. 8:9; 12:26).

See the author's outlines of the Book of Ezra: "Return to Restore Worship and Morality"


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Updated May 27, 2024